Proper footwear is an important part of an overall treatment program for people with diabetes, even for those in the earliest stages of the disease. If there is any evidence of neuropathy, or numbness, wearing the right footwear is crucial.
People with diabetes should choose shoes that:
- Accommodate, stabilize and support deformities such as Charcot foot, loss of fatty tissue, hammertoes and amputations. Many deformities need to be stabilized to relieve pain and avoid further destruction. In addition, some deformities may need to be controlled or supported to decrease progression of the deformity.
- Limit motion of joints. Limiting the motion of certain joints in the foot can often decrease inflammation, relieve pain, and result in a more stable and functional foot.
- Reduce shock and shear. A reduction in the overall amount of vertical pressure, or shock, on the bottom of the foot is desirable, as well as a reduction of horizontal movement of the foot within the shoe, or shear.
- Relieve areas of excessive pressure. Any area where there is excessive pressure on the foot can lead to skin breakdown or ulcers. Footwear should help to relieve these high pressure areas, and therefore reduce the occurrence of related problems.
Many diabetics need special prescription footwear. The various types include:
- Custom-made shoes. When extremely severe deformities are present, a custom-made shoe can be constructed from a cast or model of the patient's foot. These cases are rare. With extensive modifications of in-depth shoes, even the most severe deformities can usually be accommodated.
- External shoe modifications. This involves modifying the outside of the shoe in some way, such as modifying the shape of the sole or adding shock-absorbing or stabilizing materials.
- Healing shoes. Immediately following surgery or ulcer treatment, some type of shoe may be necessary before a regular shoe can be worn. These include custom sandals (open toe), heat-moldable healing shoes (closed toe), and post-operative shoes.
- In-depth shoes. The in-depth shoe is the basis for most footwear prescriptions. It is generally an oxford-type or athletic shoe with an additional 1/4- to 1/2-inch of depth throughout the shoe, allowing extra volume to accommodate any needed inserts or orthoses, as well as deformities commonly associated with a diabetic foot. In-depth shoes also tend to be light in weight, have shock-absorbing soles, and come in a wide range of shapes and sizes to accommodate virtually any foot.
- Orthoses or inserts. An orthosis is a removable insole which provides pressure relief and shock absorption. Both pre-made and custom-made orthoses or inserts are commonly prescribed for patients with diabetes, including a special "total contact orthosis," which is made from a model of your foot and offers a high level of comfort and pressure relief.